7 Common Causes of Fertility Problems in Men

On mutual understanding after your marriage, you decide to expand your family. As per the made plan, both of you start making your effort. You (male) have queries in your mind when your female partner does not get pregnant through unprotected timed physical intimacy for 6-12 months. One of those queries could link to your fertility. And you decide to visit a fertility or IVF centre in Lajpat Nagar (Delhi) or your locality to know the real cause. 

Seeing a respective doctor is the one you must do to confirm your doubt. However, you should educate yourself on your reproductive health, especially male infertility/fertility problems. Usually, fertility problems in men occur due to several factors such as lifestyle, medical history, age, and environmental toxins. Here are some common causes of fertility problems in men:

1. Medical history and bad/unhealthy lifestyle   

Certain health issues and lifestyle choices have a direct impact on your reproductive health and fertility. You can experience having issues making your female partner conceive. Here are some lifestyle and medical conditions that can affect your fertility:

  • Smoking cigarettes, cigars, pipes, etc., and chewing tobacco products   
  • Consuming recreational drugs such as marijuana and heroine 
  • More than 3 pegs of alcoholic beverages a day 
  • Anabolic steroids 
  • Certain medications such as cancer, infection, digestive disorder treatment 
  • Chronic illnesses like diabetes, thyroid, and cancer   
  • Lack of the essential nutritional elements 
  • Underweight or overweight 
  • Hernia 
  • STIs such as gonorrhoea 

You should treat a disease soon and follow a healthy lifestyle to avoid having fertility problems. 

2. Varicoceles 

In the scrotum, varicoceles are large veins that increase testicle temperature. And this temperature increase may affect your sperm production and quality. Usually, you have no visible symptoms of this reproductive health issue. However, you can experience pain in the scrotal while standing, sitting, or exercising for a longer period. 

Your doctor can conduct a physical exam or recommend an ultrasound of your scrotal area. You can have IVF, IUI, or ICSI as fertility treatment for you and your spouse. The doctor will use your extracted and washed sperm or donor sperm to make your female partner pregnant. 

3. Ejaculation problem

A few men have a blockage in the ejaculatory duct. And due to this, sperm does not come out with ejaculatory fluid. Some males experience retrograde ejaculation in which semen gets into the bladder instead of coming out through the penis. It happens due to a functional issue of the muscle at the neck of the bladder. You can have ejaculation issues due to diabetes, injury, neurological issues, infection, or a vasectomy.   

There are not any signs. However, if you have ejaculation issues, you can notice little or cloudy urine or no ejaculation during physical intimacy with your female partner. Your doctor can recommend surgery to reverse the vasectomy, repair the obstruction, or extract sperm for IVF or IUI.   

4. Poor sperm count and motility 

Your sperm is unable to fertilize your female partner’s egg if you have low or no sperm, abnormally shaped sperm, or poor sperm motility. Hormonal imbalances, injury, or chronic diseases cause poor sperm.   

Usually, you have no symptoms. You can know it only through a semen analysis which your doctor may recommend if required. IUI, donor sperm, fertility drugs, IVF, and ICSI are possible fertility treatments for you and your spouse willing to become parents.   

5. Anti-sperm antibodies

You might have antibodies that can affect your sperm count and motility. After a vasectomy, trauma, testicular torsion, or infection, you could have anti-sperm antibodies. Your doctor can recommend IVF or ICSI as primary treatment. The doctor can also recommend steroids. 

6. Exposure to extreme heat or industrial chemicals 

The atmosphere you live in or work has an impact on your reproductive health and fertility. Constant exposure to pesticides, industrial chemicals, and extreme heat causes you sperm issues. Wearing loose undergarments, avoiding placing the laptop on your lap, and staying away from harmful chemicals can help you stay safe. 

7. Unknown problems/Unexplained fertility  

If your doctor does not find any root cause of your fertility problems through tests or screenings, you have unexplained infertility. The doctor can help you become a father with a combination of fertility drugs and assisted reproductive technology (ART). 


Male infertility happens due to several reasons. Medical history and bad lifestyle choices to anti-sperm antibodies, poor sperm count, and ejaculation problems are some factors that cause fertility problems in men. Most male fertility problems are treatable and you can become a father of a child.      

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